In 2002 the EU introduced the MAC directive and in 2004 the F-gas directive. While the MAC directive bans refrigerants beyond a GWP level of 150, it created a push to develop new solutions for to replace R134a in automotive air conditioning. In 2003 Denmark added a very high HFC tax and in 2007 a maximum charge cap of 10 kg HFC was added beyond the F-gas directive. This forced the food retail industry to look for alternatives to HFC refrigerants and initiated a development of CO2 based refrigeration systems. Even new system builders emerged in successful companies. It is interesting to take a look at the technology development within this application.
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